energy

Wind energy plants repowering potential in Italy: technical-economic assessment

In many countries, pioneers in wind plants installation during the last decades of XX century, there is a progressive shortage of land based sites suitable for new wind farms and, at the same time, many installed wind turbines are reaching the end-of-life. Three options can be considered for a wind plant at the end-of-life: the decommissioning, the revamping and the repowering. The main advantages of the repowering option are the

Smart metering projects: an interpretive framework for successful implementation

The energy sector has significantly changed in recent years and has introduced new challenges, especially for policymakers and distribution system operators (DSOs). Among other challenges, there is the management of the smart metering (SM; abbreviation also used for smart meter) technologies and their rollout. Several SM implementation projects have been initiated throughout Europe because of the EU directive on energy efficiency 2012/27/EC and priors. No wonder that scholars and industry